Tres Carnales Taqueria, Edmonton Restaurant Review

Tres Carnales Taqueria, Edmonton Restaurant Review

Tres Carnales Taqueria was brought to my attention by the Canadian TV show, You Gotta Eat Here, on the Food Network. I was under the impression the host, a weedy jewish looking dude, must have had a taco baby aft

Tres Carnales Taqueria
Tres Carnales Taqueria

er the mouth orgasm he was describing from their mexican delights.

After browsing their we

bsite and salivating over their simple and locally sourced menu, my girlfriend and I decided we had to eat here, after all the Jew did say, “you gotta eat here!” I love Mexican food, real Mexican food, not that Tex Mex shit.

We rocked up on a Friday afternoon at around 2pm, hoping we would have missed the major lunch hour rush, but the line was almost out the door and the restaurant, although small, was full. The decor was funky, modern, fun, well lit and the kinda place you’d be happy to instagram photos without needing to use that blur feature to remove the backdrop to your poorly photographed food.

While waiting in line, I got bored, saw some people get up to leave, left my girlfriend to wait in line and took a seat. It was less then a minute until the one of the staff came over to tell me to get out of the seat, get back and line because I was only allowed to be seated after I had ordered and then they w

ill allocate me a seat. I obliged. Thinking back though, this seems ridiculous. I’ve eaten at a lot of restaurants around the world and never come across this system before. I feel like this is the cheapest way to seat patrons without actually offering table side waiter service, while at the same time, prompting the customer for a tip, which I sadly witnessed by girlfriend pay 15% gratuity on her debit card order. I think if you want to force an entire party to stand and wait in line while there are empty seats, you could at least put a sign stating that this is the case, so the customer isn’t made to feel like a dick being told off in your restaurant aka hybrid food court seating system. Whether you’re made to wait for a tabl

e when you order your food, or when you enter the joint, it’s not going to change the fact you have to wait as the restaurant can only hold x amount of hungry patrons. This would all be solved and create a nicer dining experience if they just took an order at the table, ya know, like how restaurants do, versus the cafeteria system, and just let take away orders be order at the counter.

This also doesn’t make any sense being they are licensed, ok…so I finish my beer during my meal, I want another…I then have to line up again at the end of the 20 or so person line to get another cerveza? Fuck That.

I was still eager to eat the food, after all this was on TV. We ended up being seated at a table for four after ordering, versus the two stools I had taken to the side, which

makes much more sense. A few minutes later and the hipster waiter with his cool curled up hat (boy it was sunny indoors that day) took our food from the counter three metres away, taking a total of five steps, rightfully earning that $5 tip – $1 a step.

The food looked good, aside from the token garnish – 2 peeled carrot stubs on the side. I ordered the beef tacos, I always say the carne asada taco is the staple to judge any mexican restaurant. My girlfriend ordered the fish tacos. My meat was dry, over cooked and chewy. The beef was diced, but rather then being chopped just before being placed on the taco, it had been cooking a lot longer in diced form and was chewy with little flavour or spices. I found it pretty tasteless, much like the red salsa served with it. The fish tacos were better, the fish tasted

fresh; nicely battered, but as my girlfriend said, which I agree, it was lacking flavour also. We’re not sure if the runny green stuff on top was meant to be guacamole, but was lacking in any ‘punch’.

Had I not seen this on TV and got my hopes up so much, I may not have been quite so disappointed – I had come specifically for amazing mexican, but instead was made to stand in line and then served chewy tasteless beef. I haven’t been to Mexico yet, but still nothing so far has compared to the tacos I used to get from the Hispanic Market around the corner from when I lived in Fullerton, CA. We called him the taco nazi, each sunday he’d bring this massive metal dish outside and serve up and assortment of freshly cooked meats in a taco for $1 each. Subsequently, I’ve compared every taco to his…even if I had t

o tip him $1 to ensure he’d give me more of the sweet baby onions on top, and I always felt he was mad giving his tacos to non mexican types like me (thus he earned nazi soup chef status).

I’ve had far better mexican food in Edmonton from The Three Amigos, who actually provide service, and last time I went there they had a live mariachi band. Perhaps I didn’t order the best item there (I hear there pork sandwich thing is amazing, but if you can’t cook steak, you probably can’t

cook pork) maybe I hit it at a bad time, but I have no desire to ever eat there again and wouldn’t recommend it.

6/10 Nice idea, nice restaurant, over hyped and ultimately let down by their food.



State of America’s Children


State of America’s Children

While back the American education used to actually be the desire of the whole world due to its comprehensive systems geared at molding the child to a responsible and productive citizen but this has gone into calamitous straits in the recent years. The latest research on the country’s rank nationally in terms of overall educational accomplishment reveals that the country is ranked number 21st amongst twenty five developed countries globally for students aged 15 years.

Statistics revealed that more than 60% of the 4th grade students in public schools in 2009 achieved quite dismally in reading and doing mathematics which was below the stipulated grade level. The table below compares this aspect between the numerous students coupled with their ethical backgrounds and also amongst all States in the country.

  Total White Black Hispanic Asian,








Alaska Native

Total White Black Hispanic Asian,







District of Colombia 83


25 89 83 _ _ 83 19 91 76 _ _
Florida 64


55 82 69 44 _ 60 47 80 67 27 _




44 77 80 44 _ 43 33 70 75 30 _


A lot of students who attend public school, nursery school throughout the 12th grade, are really struggling; nevertheless, poor children as well as minority children are in essence the ones extremely struggling due to their cultural, ethnic and family backgrounds. Usually they often drop behind in school education and tend to dropout out of school, thus increasing their peril of entering the structure of criminality and this takes them towards the prison pipeline. Studies show that the best means of limiting juvenile delinquency is by such students settling in school along with getting an excellence education and by far this is the definite route towards an accountable and productive parenthood (Rumberger 2011).

The Children’s Defense Fund (CDF) in 2010 compiled a report regarding the state of America’s children and it consists of a compressive and reliable state as well as national data on numerous aspects of life including education, early childhood development, child welfare, health, and poverty and in their report it is revealed that the country apparently expends approximately three times much on a prisoner than they do on a public school student.  Also, it reveals that the American schools have adopted resegregation whereby 78% of students having Hispanic backgrounds and 73% who are black primarily attend minority schools.

More studies indicate that over 60% of 4th grade students in public schools read or do mathematics below the grade level and it goes on to specify that 84% Hispanic and 855 of Black students read lower than grade level. Te trend goes on to designate that the Black scholars are actually additionally three times to receive school suspension than their Pacific Islander/Asian or White counterparts. The part which brings a lot of discontent to the general public is discovering that 11% of White high school pupils, 39% of Hispanic, and 46% of Black students seemingly attend the two thousand of the country known drop out schools and this translates into fewer than 60% of all the entire freshman class which will graduate after 4 years holding a standard diploma.

The high drop out of students belonging to the Hispanic and Black origins has been explained by many researchers and majority of them site economic, educational, and socio-cultural reasons which make the students abandon school. For instance, McMillan indicates that the Hispanic speaking students who had reported that they had difficulties in speaking English had a dropout rate of 32.95 while those who were good at oral communication using English had a drop our rate of 19.2%. Therefore, if the student did poorly in spoken English then the probability that they had poor English reading skills was high and this definitely translates them absconding school (Rumberger 2011).

Families’ responsibilities have been recorded as factors which too negatively impact pupils and consequently force them drop out. The University of California in Santa Barbara through Russell W. Rumberger carried out a research through interviewing some scholars with the aim of disclosing the reason behind their dropping out of school.  “About 20% of dropouts report that they left school because they had to help out their families’ responsibility” (Rumberger 2011). The study went further to show that 37% of the male students who dropped out as a result of family responsibility were Blacks while 47 percent were Hispanic. More so, the males had higher chances of abandoning school to further their family responsibilities than their female counterparts.  On the other hand, the females composed of 30% Blacks, 60% Hispanic and 10% whites (Rumberger 2011). It can be deduced that blacks and Hispanics had high chances of not completing school as evident in the study and this can be related to many issues like single parenthood, socio-cultural and economic downfalls.

Thornburgh (2006) noted that current researchers bring out astonishing statistics pertaining school drop outs and they argue that almost 1/3rd of students in high schools will not graduate across the nation. It is even worse for the African Americans and Latinos as the rate of drop out approaches a disturbing 50%.

There are psychological factors involved in the increment in high school dropout as Bridgeland et al (2006) recorded that 47% of the study group they studied didn’t discover that school was interesting and therefore they dropped out. Moreover, lots of the interviewees said that the teachers lacked engagement and were only interested with finishing the coursework rather than teaching the class. The lack of adult engagement also appears where in the study done by Bridgeland et al in 2006 shows that 69% of the student dropouts alleged that the adults in their life including family members didn’t suppose them to achieve well in academics, and such low expectations added to their choice to drop out.

In a report on study which involved interrogations with educators, Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Balfanz (2009) established that barely 32% of the assessed high school educators approved with the testimonial that they should anticipate all pupils to meet elevated academic values and provide additional support to those struggling students to aid them in meeting those standards (p. 22). Experimental research has absolutely confirmed that teachers’ anticipations do certainly affect both the grades along with students’ probability of dropping out (Kaufman, Bradbury, & Owings, 1992).




Impact of school drop out

A report carried in July 2011 revealed that high school student’ dropouts actually cost the country about $320-359 billion yearly in incarceration costs, welfare, health, taxable income, as well as lost wages. A testimony by National center for Education statistics stated that high school drop outs would earn approximately $630,000 less in their life span than somebody who had received at least a General Education Development certification.  Furthermore, dropouts are actually not qualified for about 90% of the current jobs within the economy and this high dropout rate is a big contributor to the escalating unemployment rate across the nation (Zhao 2011).


The US Low Standards for Teacher Training

The low level of education in the country is wanting according to a report by the Program for international Student Assessment (PISA) in 2009 as it ranked 25th in math, 17th in science, and 14th in reading out of 70 counties worldwide in fifteen year olds. This can be attributed to many issues discussed above but another factor to blame is the low standard of teacher training in the country. Statistics composed by Jody Heymann shows that the country actually lags behind in terms of its teachers’ requirements for upper secondary level than most countries like Spain, Finland, Czech Republic, and Portugal as they employ teachers who have a master’s degree while in U.S. the level is a teacher with mere bachelor’s degree who apparently has no training (Brady 2013).

Therefore, numerous school systems turn down teachers who have higher degrees and take in those with a mere bachelor’s degree and a sort of federal or state certification. Seemingly, other states possess some sort of alternative routes regarding the finishing of an alternative certification course while the tutor concurrently teaches permanent. The lack of federal mandate regarding teacher’s education requirement is really taking down the education sector since their educational levels influences the pupils’ performance. Correspondingly, a study done by the Utah State University in 2008 established that those science teachers who had advanced degrees in education or science greatly improved their pupils’ scientific achievements. Therefore, the federal and state education policy makers ought to review policies demanding that all science and math teachers to advance further up in the learning ladder prior to taking up teaching roles in schools (Zhang 2008).




















Work cited

Brady, H. (2013, March 21). U.S. science teachers are behind in training, degree requirements. – Slate Magazine. Politics, Business, Technology, and the Arts – Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from

Bridgeland, J. M., Dilulio, J. J., & Balfanz, R. (2009). On the Front Lines of Schools: Perspectives of Teachers and Principals on the High School Dropout Problem. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from

Kaufman, P., Bradbury, D., & Owings, J. (1992). Characteristics of At-Risk Students. Published in NELS:88. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics

McMillen, M., Kaufman, P. and Klein, S. 1997. Dropout Rates in the United States: 1995. Washington: US Dept of Education. NCES 97-473.

Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping out why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Thornburgh, N. (2006, April 9). Dropout Nation – TIME. Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews – Retrieved June 12, 2013, from,9171,1181646-8,00.html

Zhang Danhui (2008, December 1). The Effects of Teacher Education Level, Teaching Experience, And Teaching Behaviors On Student Science Achievement. Utah State University. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from

Zhao, E. (2011, October 20). High School Dropout Rates For Minority And Poor Students Disproportionately High. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from

Clint Eastwood- FILM 101

Clinton (Clint) Eastwood is considered to be one of Americas premiere film actors who has had a long and illustrious film career. His current endeavors in the film industry include being a director, a film producer, and a musical composer; he has also tried out his talents as a politician when he was elected mayor of a small California city several years ago.

Clint Eastwood first came to be noticed in the acting community as a supporting cast member in the Western TV series entitle Rawhide which played during the years of nineteen fifty nine through nineteen sixty five. After the series ended, he rose to fame and practically became a household name for his portrayal of the Man with no Name in Italian director Sergio Leones spaghetti westerns films which were usually produced on a shoe string budget.

In the nineteen seventies Eastwoods claim to fame were his Dirty Harry movies in which he portrayed a tough police detective in San Francisco California who battled crime in his own particular way, it was in these films that the iconic phrase “Make my day” came into being. In the late seventies he made a commercially successful pair of films with the Any which way but Loose sequels.

Clint Eastwood has managed to maintain a successful career in the entertainment business for decades and still shows no signs of slowing down. In addition to his directing endeavors he has also received several academy awards nominations for films that he did direct such as Letters from Iwo Jima and the Changeling. Clint Eastwood was born in May 31st in nineteen thirty and is currently married and has four grown up children. He currently resides in San Francisco California and continues to be internationally renowned for his past acting endeavors and has been honored by the film industries of Italy and France by numerous awards and acclimates.




Do My Homework For Me

Obesity has become one of the major issues in today’s modern society. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have, and usually does have an adverse effect on the health of the individual.  It may lead to reduced life expectancy and/or an increase in health problems. However, obesity it is not considered the same as being overweight, which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight due to extra muscles, bone or water and having too much fat as well. A person’s breathing may be affected by obesity because it slows down agile physical movement. An obese person may also suffer from diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and probably because of their obese condition can expect to live a poorer quality of life then the non-obese person.

Eating foods with more calories than your body can burn usually leads to obesity because the body stores unused calories as fat. The typical modern American diet (MAD) consists of fast foods which contain very little nutritional value and at the same time contain a very high caloric intake. Obesity can be caused by eating more food that your body can use, drinking too much alcohol and not getting enough exercise. Unfortunately this lifestyle has become the norm in today’s modern society. This unhealthy lifestyle is not only typical in the United States, but also in Western Europe, and is now becoming prevalent in Asia, especially the economically emerging nations of China and North and South Korea. Scientific studies have shown that usually many people regain more weight than they initially had lost. The human body has a complex system of checks and balances that help us keep our weight at a healthy level. There are also other factors that can affect weight; lack of time to plan and make healthy meals is one of these major factors. Also individuals who have less free time because of their work schedules have less time to exercise. Our modern society has also contributed to the alarmingly high rate of obesity because many people work at a sedentary job, usually sitting behind a desk, as compared to those active jobs in the past. Typically, obesity chooses no victim; it can be suffered by most of us since the major causes are attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle and a lack of physical activity and discipline.

Research shows that lifestyle has a bigger impact on people’s weight. Lifestyle choices are an important factor in influencing our weight. In today’s society, people do not get the exercise that their bodies require anymore because of other activities such as entertainment and the utilization of modern technological gadgets which are present in today’s world and were non-existent a century ago. Many individuals would rather consume their time watching television or using their computers to surf the Internet. Sedentary lifestyle plays a major role in obesity. It is a medical term used to symbolize a lifestyle with no physical activity involve. It is found in both developed and developing world. Some people would rather spend most of their free time reading and sitting rather than engaging in physical activity. I just want to mention that sitting and reading is a good activity in which to engage your mind, but the human body also needs a fair amount of physical activity in order to remain healthy and operating at its peak level. Also, people eat a lot of fast food since they may not have much time to prepare for a healthy meal and also because of individuals idleness. Unhealthy food choices such as not eating fruits, vegetables, and unrefined carbohydrates can also be evidence of having an unhealthy lifestyle. Eating large portions of food, much more than you actually need, can lead to obesity, sometimes to what is called morbid obesity. There may be times when you may be inclined to eat too much whenever you are in stress or if your friends or relatives are also eating large portions at meal times, this is known to be the case during the holiday season. Drinking too much alcohol can also be a culprit since alcohol contains a lot of calories and carbohydrates and may contribute to your increase of weight, and storage of unwanted fat cells throughout the body.

Genes can also be a contributing factor for a person to become obese. Some genetic conditions which may run in your family can increase your appetite and as a result you may find yourself consuming more food than your body requires.  Some individuals tend to keep or maintain their same body weight for years without exerting much effort, while on the other hand some individuals find that their weight increases drastically if they are not careful on what they eat.  The human body contains genes and hormones that determine how much body fat our body chemistry will store. A meticulous genetic variation within an individual’s body will indicates that their body is more prone to store fat than somebody else.

The medical condition of obesity is now at an overwhelming high rate, especially in the richer countries throughout the globe. It seems to be a condition that can be alleviated by a change in an individual’s style of life, if that individual is willing to make the changes required to bring about those changes. As I have stated in this report, obesity if not contained can lead to many other dire medical conditions that will cut down on the years that a person may have.

Diabetes is also at an all time high, especially diabetes II. This condition is caused by an elevated surge in an individual’s blood sugar that causes them to become intensely ill and can lead to blindness, amputation of limbs, and possibly death. Researchers have found that the over consumption of refined sugars and carbohydrates which are overly abundant in processed foods are a major contributor to type 2 diabetes. The modern American diet (MAD) in which most of us indulge in is unfortunately high in these sugars and carbohydrates and very low in the nutritional factors that our bodies need.

Most Americans and to a lesser extent Europeans indulge in this type of food consumption. By eating in this manner we are basically setting ourselves up for many of these lack of good nutrition based illnesses, which could eventually be our undoing.

American and French researchers have performed what is called “The French Paradox”, which is a study about the eating habits of the French people who live around the Mediterranean seacoast. These individuals seem to eat more meat products and also seem to smoke more that Americans do, but seem to get fewer cases of diabetes and heart disease. In 1991 researchers concluded that the French people tend to suffer a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease despite having a diet relatively rich in saturated fat.

When the description of this finding aired on American television, some nutritional experts attributed this occurrence to the French consumption of red wine. Despite having alcohol, red wine also contains a chemical compound called resveratol which decreases the incidence of cardiac disease. Some wine producers after hearing about these results, began to lobby Congress to have red wine listed as a health food because of it containment of resveratol.

Other nutritional experts attribute the results to the French consumption of good fats instead of bad fats that are eaten by most Americans. The French people get up to 80% of their fat intake from dairy and vegetable sources, including whole milk, yogurt, cheeses, and the consumption of fish, at least three times a week. The French also tended to eat smaller portions of food at their meals, have a lower sugar intake, less snacking between meals, and the avoidance of typical American foods items such as deep fried foods, processed snack foods, and soda which contains large amounts of processed sugar.


Researchers concluded that the French people were able to stay slimmer and healthier than their American counterpart because they eat smaller portions, and take in plenty of liquids such as water, herbal tea and soups. They also tend to eat three times a day and do not snack in between meals. They also enjoy the meal time experience and do not watch television or do other activities at their meal time. Also they tend to savor their food which in turn increases their feeling of satisfaction and enjoyment of their meals which leads to better food digestion and nutritional absorption.

Obesity is a problem of today’s modern society. Centuries ago when the human population throughout the world had to go out into the fields and do physical labor to gather enough food to keep themselves alive, there was no such thing as an obesity problem, or high glucose blood sugar conditions that cause diabetes. And if there were cases of these incidents they were very low, and in no way close to the epidemic situations which are occurring today. The ancient Greeks actually know about diabetes which they called sweet urine, when they noticed that insects were attracted to the urine of some individuals who were ill because of high sugar levels within their bodies. Many food producers are also to blame for the obesity problem. They inject their food products with processed sugar and have depleted the foods of practically all nutritional value in order to preserve shelf life.

Overall, evidence shows that lifestyle contributes more to obesity than genes of any particular family. Having an improper choice of nutritional lifestyle can cause problems to our health and to our physical characteristics as well. Too much consumption of improper and unhealthy foods and not having a proper exercise program can cause a person to become obese and be prone to health problems and sickness. Obesity can be prevented, but only if we choose to do so.


B. Simini (2000): The French paradox to Creatan Miracle. The Lancet.

Ferrieres, J. (2004) The French Paradox, Lesson for other countries.

            Rashmisrisethi, A.  Lifestyle habit affects obesity. 13 Jul  2008. Thaindian News. <online> Accessed 3 Nov 2011. Retrieved from:


            Causes of obesity. NHS Choices. <online> Accessed 3 Nov 2011. Retrieved from:


            Obesity. 11 Jul  2011. PubMed Health. <online> Accessed 3 Nov 2011. Retrieved from:









Muslim Political Aspects


Political aspect of the Muslims and those that adhere to the Muslim faith are derived from the Qur’an or Koran. The sayings and the everyday living habits of the people that follow Islam come directly from these sacred writings that were supposedly given to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel and by the god Allah himself.












Muslim Political Aspects                                                            3

The Muslim religion is a religion that has existed for over fourteen centuries and currently exists in many different parts of the globe. Because of these reasons many diverse political movements in many different forms and contexts have used the flag or banner of the Muslim faith to lend legitimacy to a particular cause or reason. As such, many aspects of Muslim or Islamic political views are subject to abundant contention and disagreements between the differing interpretations of the Koranic writings. These differing thoughts have become particularly divisive between conservative Muslims and liberal movements within the Muslim political sphere. At this point in time, the Muslim faith is considered to be the third largest faith in the world, because of this fact they can carry vast amounts of influence throughout the globe both, politically, and economically.

Muslim or Islamic political parties currently exist in practically every democracy throughout the globe that has a Muslim majority. The controversial term islamofascism has also been used frequently by many non- Muslim groups to describe the political, religious, and economical philosophies of various militant Muslim groups. This term lumps together a huge variety of assorted groups which many Muslims object to. Individuals who adhere to Islam and modern Islamic philosophy have attempted to explain to non-Muslims and Muslims alike some of their actual view in some detail.

Individuals who consider themselves Islamist claim that the origins of the Muslim religion as a political movement are to be located in the life and times of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. According to the writings of the Koran in the year 622 Common Era (CE), in recognition of his claims to prophet hood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of Medina.

Muslim Political Aspects                                               4

At this time the local Arab tribes dominated the city and were in continual conflict with one another. These same Arab tribesmen saw Muhammad as a person from outside of the city, and as such impartial. For these reasons Muhammad and his followers moved to Medina where he drafted what was called the Medina Charter. This document made Muhammad the ruler of the city and also recognized him as the prophet of the god Allah.

After the death of Muhammad the followers of the Muslim faith needed to appoint a new leader, giving rise to the title of the Caliph which means successor. Thus the subsequent Muslim empires were to be called Caliphates (Feldman, Noah, 2008).

This Muslim empire that was expanded by the caliphs would eventually encompass the areas known as Al-Andalus (Spain) to Persia, which is modern day Iran. These conquering Muslim armies took with them the systems of sharia laws and courts to their new military camps and cities, and also built mosques and schools to educate the local youths into the traditions of Islam.

Western scholars and experts on Muslims, such as Fred Donner state that the typical Muslim practice during the early years of the Caliphates was for the important individuals of a tribe or kinship group  to assemble together for the determination of new leadership. At these consultative assembly, candidates usually from the same tribe or lineage as the deceased leader would be proposed as the new successor. These would be capable men who would lead well, and in many instances were preferred over an ineffectual direct heir. Various scholars tend to argue that for hundreds of years until the nineteenth and twentieth century, Muslin states followed a system of governing themselves which was based on the coexistence of sultan and the rule of sharia law.


Muslim Political Aspects                                                           5

This Arabic system of government resembled to a certain extent some European governments in possessing an unwritten constitution like the United Kingdom, and having separate branches of government like the United States which provided for the separation of power in governances. While the American republic and some other forms of government have three branches of governing themselves, which are the executive, the judicial, and the legislative, Islamic governments only had two, these are the sultan and sharia law. A symbol of how successful this system of government has become is in the current popularity of the Muslim movement which seeks to restore the Muslim state (Lewis, Bernard, 1995).

There are many Muslims throughout the globe that argue that the Muslim religion does not separate religion from the state, and that’s because their form of government is based on their Koran, there is no need for this particular procedure in their government. Various non-Muslim scholars argue that a “defacto separation between political power of sultans and the religious power of the caliphs was formed and placed into an institution as early as the end of the first century. Political experts’ state that what has been lacking in the Muslim world is political thought regarding the autonomy of the state; no positive law was developed outside that of sharia law.

The sovereign’s main function at this point was to defend the Muslim community against enemies, to implement sharia law, and to ensure for the welfare of the public. It was the responsibility of the state to ensure that the public lived as good Muslims and Muslims were to obey the sultan without question.

Muslim Political Aspects                                                         6

The legitimizing of a Muslim ruler was based and also symbolized by the rulers’ right to coin money and to have the all important Friday prayer said in the rulers’ name. According to some Muslim scholars one of the key statements in the Qur’an (Koran) around which much Muslim doctrine says about who is in charge is based on a verse in the Koran regarding the need to obey all human authority who are obeying the writings of the prophet.

In the nineteenth century European encroachment on the Muslim world resulted with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The first major European power to arrive into the sphere of territories which were under Muslim influence were the French who arrived in Algeria in 1830. The Muslim reaction to this encroachment was to launch an all out jihad, or holy war against the French.  Various Muslim tribes joined together to form coalitions and sharia law in defiance of local common law was imposed to unify these tribes. Despite many Muslim military victories over the Europeans they failed to decisively turn them back and the European encroachment continued.

Another important Muslim reaction to European encroachment late in the nineteenth century and the twentieth century was to utilize non-violent resistance along with the adoption of some European political, social, cultural and technological methods. Members of the Muslim elite, especially those in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey emphasized what they called the modernization and westernization of these countries. This Muslim failure at westernization was paramount in the Ottoman Empire where an attempt to implement western style laws was stifled, when sharia was codified into law and an elected legislature was established to implement and make new policy according to sharia law.

Muslim Political Aspects                                                      7

Modern Muslim political thought has become a strictly non-evangelical form of thinking. Modern Muslim politicians are born out of the struggle against European colonialism and the war on terrorism. Muslim resistance organizations can be seen as similar to other forms of resistance movements, such as the Latin American struggle against U.S. imperialism. In this instance Muslim political thought falls within the scope of internationalism which has many faces. The continuing Muslim effort to change their viewed perception by the rest of the world continues to be an all encompassing effort on their part The Latin American struggles have been reported in several international magazines and likewise the Muslim struggle has been reported in these same periodicals and also in the magazine Islamic Internationalist, where they continue to get the full attention of the world (Fuller, Graham E. 2003).










REFERENCES:                                                                                                                  8


Fuller, Graham E., The future of Political Islam (2003) p.26

Feldman, Noah, Fall and Rise of the Islamic State, Princeton University Press, 2008.p.2

Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East, A brief history of the last 2000 years, Touchstone, 1995, p.139

PUP 301- Introduction to Urban Planning: EXAM #2

  1. When you consider the traffic movement after the freeway construction has been completed hopefully it is flowing quickly and efficiently. But if you consider the flow of traffic during freeway construction it becomes very frustrating for every commuter that is utilizing it. Traffic itself may stop completely on the freeway or move so slowly that it may be better to use the surface streets in order to arrive at your destination. I am sure that the transportation planners are doing the best that they can in order to efficiently move traffic along.
  2. There have been various measures that local government ordinances have used to implement flexible zoning. Flexible zoning is a method of land use planning practices and methods that are utilized by local government agencies. The different measures of flexible zoning are Functional zoning, Performance zoning, Incentive zoning and Euclidean zoning. These different types of zoning measures have been utilized in the USA by local governments in order to effectively regulate various characteristic of buildings and edifices.
  3. The growth of a city needs to be properly managed in order to make sure that the various community’s needs are being properly met by the city planners. Important issues such as segregation will need to be properly addressed in order to prevent discrimination against any group of people so integration would need to be considered by the urban planners. The local governments both city and state will be required to elect political officials from the local communities to establish home rules that will be good for the various neighborhoods where the diverse cultural characteristics of the communities can be expressed opening.
  4. City zoning rules can be utilized as an important tool for communities by allowing and not allowing certain variables that can defend the privileges of groups of people.  Not In My Backyard or NIMBY can be utilized by communities in order to prevent certain types of developments from being constructed that may be a hindrance and deterrent to their property values.
  5. Structural unemployment can only be properly dealt with by providing employment opportunities to the local communities where the citizens of the community will have the skills required for the jobs and also live near by where the jobs are located. Structural unemployment is a permanent type of unemployment and can only be properly dealt with in the long run and with enough time. Global job losses can also cause structural unemployment and an example of this is that an American manufacturer moves his business out of the country to another country where the wages are lower, structural unemployment has just occurred in America, but this has actually become a global phenomena happening in all nations.
  6. Regional planning is considered to be a difficult process because it tends to deal with the efficient placement of land utilization, land infrastructures, and community growths across a larger area of land utilization. Regional planning requires various land utilization processes such as protection for farms and ranches, as well as wilderness areas.



7. The planning difference that exists between the USA and those of other nations is that in the USA regional planning may encompass more that one state and may involve the national planning agency of Regional Planning Association and networks of settlements. In the USA regional planning is also likely to cover a much larger geographical area while in other nations in Europe and especially the UK these conditions are not so even though they both address issues of regionalism.